Wednesday, October 7, 2015

Formaldehyde Free Flooring?

By Crystal Hosking, Hosking Hardwood Flooring

You’ve exchanged your gas guzzler for a more environmentally friendly smart car. You’ve taken the steps to quit smoking in order to reduce the over 4000 chemicals ingested with each puff. You’ve reduced your carbon footprint and pesticide intake by shopping the local farmer markets. These are all simple steps for a healthier home for you and your family! But could your own house be poisoning you?

How safe are the materials in your home?

How safe are the building materials in your home?

The hardwood flooring industry has always been pretty candid regarding formaldehyde levels of certain engineered flooring products. It was never a secret that formaldehyde was a major part of physically keeping some subfloors and engineered flooring together. Engineered flooring is a layer of real wood fused to either cross layers of plywood or a birch or pine core. You can read more about engineered flooring construction here. Formaldehyde is significant in this process. Or, at least, it was.

So, what IS formaldehyde anyways?

Composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, formaldehyde is a chemical that occurs naturally in our atmosphere. We are constantly exposed to this organic compound in small doses. These small amounts of formaldehyde floating around in our atmosphere are naturally disposed of, breaking down in sunlight and in water and therefore not causing any harm to you.

If formaldehyde is a natural gas of the Earth, then what’s the problem?

Well, problems with formaldehyde arise when levels of the gas form are increased, especially in enclosed areas with low ventilation. Typically, when one thinks of toxic gases, automobile exhaust and cigarette smoke come to mind. However, there is a wide array of products that consumers come in contact with on a daily basis which contain formaldehyde, including:

Car Parts

Copiers and Printers

Facial Tissue, Napkins and Paper Towels

Fungicides, Germicides and Disinfectants


Glues and Adhesives

Insulation Materials

Laminates, Compressed Hardwoods and Carpet


Particleboard, Plywood and Fiberboard (popular subfloors)

Shampoos and Cosmetics

Perhaps the biggest shocker is the realization that formaldehyde is one of the main chemicals used for the embalming process in mortuaries. It’s used for temporarily preserving dead bodies. And manufacturers are putting these chemicals in your lipsticks and shampoos?!!

What makes formaldehyde dangerous to the living is that it is classified as a VOC, which stands for Volatile Organic Compound. When VOCs reach room temperature, they convert to a gas form and “off gas” into the air. If a high enough concentration of these formaldehyde gases are ingested, it can cause significant damage and, in some cases, death.

Severity of the side effect of formaldehyde exposure can vary from person to person and obviously is dependent on formaldehyde levels in the air. As mentioned earlier, formaldehyde is constantly present as a naturally occurring gas in our atmosphere; it’s really just high concentrations that should be avoided. Symptoms of high formaldehyde intake are: irritation of the eyes, ears and throat, coughing, wheezing, skin irritation, headaches, dizzy spells and nausea. Long term exposure is thought to cause nose and throat cancer.

No wonder the “green” movement is making strides. As “green” living has become more widespread, consumers are beginning to take more interest in what they are actually putting into their homes – everything from food products to personal hygiene products to the construction materials used to build homes and renovate. In fact, in recent years (when formaldehyde was labeled a human carcinogen) major engineered flooring manufacturers have started taking a more in depth approach to lessening the amount of formaldehyde present in their final consumer products.

Obviously, nobody wants to experience the short term or long term symptoms of high formaldehyde exposure. So, how does a consumer guard their home and family against this dangerous chemical when it seems to be present in everything?

As government and environmental agencies started discovering just how dangerous formaldehyde really is, regulations on the chemical became more stringent and all encompassing. Perhaps one of the first huge steps in regulating formaldehyde came from the California Air Resources Board, commonly referred to as CARB (also as ARB). The CARB was established in the late 1960’s and their mission statement is: “To promote and protect public health, welfare and ecological resources through the effective and efficient reduction of air pollutants, while recognizing and considering the effects on the state’s economy.” (You can find this and more information about CARB at The CARB basically regulates the amount of formaldehyde found in products marketed to the U.S. consumer and many states have absorbed the CARB standards into their own state policies. Most of the top hardwood flooring manufacturers are now CARB compliant; meaning the formaldehyde off gassing from their engineered products is below the limit allowed by CARB and recognized a safe level. Along with the CARB, the U.S. government has taken a stance against unhealthy off gassing with The Clean Air Act and, most recently, President Obama signed the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products Act, establishing specific limits for formaldehyde emissions, specifically from composite wood products.

With all of the actions taken by government agencies and private environmental groups, alternatives to products with high formaldehyde levels are becoming increasingly available. The hardwood flooring industry has taken many steps since the first CARB VOC policies were introduced, and now makes cleaner, greener flooring products with lower formaldehyde emissions.

Specifically, engineered flooring manufacturers originally used Urea Formaldehyde adhesives during the pressing process, offering the lowest cost but, at the same time, the highest levels of formaldehyde off gassing. An example of the industry’s changing standards is the introduction of Phenol Formaldehyde Adhesive (PF), as well as No Added Formaldehyde Adhesives (NAF). Some of the major brands of engineered flooring that boast of their little to no formaldehyde emissions are Award, Harris Wood, Mannington, Kahrs and Teragren Bamboo. You can learn more about specific manufacturers by visiting their own website, as virtually every brand of hardwood flooring these days has their own site listing the company’s history, technical specifications, environmental stance, product lines and more.

So, if low-to-no formaldehyde processes are readily available, then why are some manufacturers still not complying with the CARB standards?? The answer is simple: low cost processes are high in toxins = cheaper products. If you search for the least expensive engineered flooring, you’ll probably find that the cheapest products are made outside of the U.S. by foreign owned flooring companies. These cheap engineered products, usually coming straight from China, may seem like a great and affordable way to put hardwood flooring in your home, but they also contain the high toxin levels and formaldehyde emissions. Most hardwood flooring manufacturers in North America and Europe are fully compliant with the CARB emission rate policies.

Ultimately, you’re never going to be completely rid of formaldehyde emissions. However, there are steps that you can take to greatly reduce the level of off gassing happening in your own home:

  1. Recognize older building materials already in use in your home which may be out of code in terms of formaldehyde emissions and make a plan to replace these materials in the future.
  2. Prior to deciding on building materials for your home, do your research and find out the specifics on the particular products you’d like to use.
  3. Make smarter choices when it comes to remodeling your home by using low-to-no formaldehyde products.

Tags: buying hardwood, CARB, Engineered Hardwood Flooring, Formaldehyde, Green Flooring

Comments: 58

Leave a reply »

  • alina

    Hi Jeff,
    We chose to go with Kahrs flooring. Now we are trying to choose an underlayment with the lowest VOC emissions. Looking at Floor Muffler vs. Eternity SG. Which one would you recommend? Thanks.

  • Hi Alina,

    In order to uphold their flooring warranty, Kahrs typically requires the use of one of their own underlayments. They offer a Combi Underlayment, which is a foam pad with an attached moisture barrier. They also offer a more dense option with better acoustic properties, which is called QuietStride. You can find more technical information on these products on the Kahrs site at:

  • Karen Lang

    We selected Homelegendd from Home Depost. It is an engineered Hardwood Hickory click and lock floor. On the package it does say made in China, Carb Phase 2 Emission Requirement. Is it safe?

    Thank you

  • Hi Karen,

    After taking a look at the brand’s website, it seems like a reputable brand but I wouldn’t be able to say with 100% certainty what their products are like since we don’t work with Home Legends. You should contact them directly if you feel you need more information than their website offers. Or, if you’re still concerned, you can get a kit to test for VOC emissions.

  • Jessie Wright

    My daughter gave me hardwood flooring for Christmas. The company can no longer sell the type they gave me. I was given the “free wood sample test”. The company said that my wood level is. .06 and the cut odd is .08. I have several of the s/s of problems to include coughing, sore throat , difficulty breathing. I have to do periodic breathing Tx. What do you suggest ? I’m scared!!!

  • Cathy T.

    I am thinking about purchasing an exotic engineered wood manufactured by Nature Flooring (Peruvian Tigerwood). I see this on your website but the manufacturer is Nature Wood Flooring. I’m assuming it’s the same manufacturer. Can you confirm this? Also, I understand Nature Flooring is a company based out of China. With the recent formaldehyde concerns for flooring made in China, is Nature Flooring a risky buy?

  • Hi Cathy,

    Yes, Nature Wood Flooring on our site is Nature Flooring. There are lots of floor options coming out of China right now and very few of them have these problems with formaldehyde levels. It’s typically the no-name brands that the big box stores buy from Chinese mills. Nature, however, is an established company from the U.S. and they do oversee all production in China so formaldehyde levels should fall into the acceptable range for sales within the U.S. If you want more technical information about Nature’s VOC emissions, they should be able to send you it if you contact them here: Nature Flooring Contact

  • Hi Jessie,

    Here is some information from the EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) regarding risks of formaldehyde:

    Chronic Effects: “The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has established a chronic inhalation minimal risk level (MRL) of 0.003 ppm (0.004 milligrams per cubic meter, mg/m3) based on respiratory effects in humans. The MRL is an estimate of the daily human exposure to a hazardous substance that is likely to be without appreciable risk of adverse noncancer health effects over a specified duration of exposure.”

    Cancer Risks: “EPA estimates that, if an individual were to continuously breathe air containing formaldehyde at an average of 0.08 µg/m3 (8.0 x 10-5 mg/m3) over his or her entire lifetime, that person would theoretically have no more than a one-in-a-million increased chance of developing cancer as a direct result of breathing air containing this chemical.”

    You can find the entire article here: Air Toxics

    Because different people have different sensitivities, different formaldehyde levels in the home can affect individuals differently. If the test kit that you used was one that you test yourself and then mail in, you may want to consider having a professional come out and test the flooring in person as those mail in tests have been known to give erroneous errors from time to time. Additionally, kits you use yourself will test the combined levels of everything in that room (furniture, appliances, etc.), so the total level might not be accurate for solely the flooring. If the flooring does have increased formaldehyde levels, it could definitely be causing your symptoms depending on your sensitivity to it but, of course, we’re not medical professionals, so we can’t offer medical advise or any diagnosis.

    Typically products which contain formaldehyde will take some time for off-gassing. You can expedite this process by upping air ventilation (open windows, ventilation systems) and/or keeping humidity levels low inside your home.

    Ultimately, if the company is telling you that they can no longer sell the product, that’s definitely a red flag. But, it might also be because it’s just a discontinued color.

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